luni, 6 aprilie 2015

GOING AMOK BY AMOC ......impact of AMOC on Arctic Sea Ice and Atmosphere Hea t Transport into the Arctic Rong Zhang, GFDL/NOAA, Princeton, NJ, USA, Rong.Zhang@Noaa.Gov The observed decline trend in September Arctic sea ice extent (SIE) since 1979 has often been attributed in large part to the increase in greenhouse gases . The observed decline trend and future projections of ice - f ree summer bring up the potential for trans - Arctic shipping in the near future . However , the detail mechanisms causing the low frequency variability of su mmer Arctic SIE is still unclear. T he most rapid observed decline actually occurred during the recent hiatus in global warming , and CMIP5 multi - model ensemble mean response to changes in radiative forcings exhibit much less decline trend in September Arcti c SIE, but stronger warming trend in global mean surface temperature than that observed during this hiatus period . In this study, it is shown that AMOC and the associated poleward Atlantic heat transport have played a significant role in the low frequency variability of summer Arctic SIE using the GFDL couple d climate model . At low frequency the March Barents Sea SIE anomaly is dominated by anti - correlated Atlantic inflow anomaly, thus is also significantly correlated with September Arctic SIE a nomaly. The observed March Barents Sea SIE has a very similar normalized decline trends as the observed September Arcti c SIE from 1979 to 2013, consistent with an increasing trend in Atlantic inflow and the multidecadal variability of AMOC implied by its f ingerprints over the same period . This study estimated that a positive trend in the Atlantic inflow have contributed a substantial portion o f the obser ved summer Arctic sea ice extent decline trend since 1979 . The results also provide a clue of why most CM IP underestimate the observed summer Arctic SIE decline in recent decades which might have been substantially affected by internal variability. If the AMOC and the associated Atlantic heat transport into the Arctic were to weaken in the near future, then t here would be a slowdown in the decline trend of September Arctic SIE, and we may not have ice - free Arctic summer that soon in a few decades. This plausible scenario with enormous social and economical impacts cannot be ignored. This study also shows that a t low frequency , changes in poleward atmosphere heat transport across the entire Arctic Circle are compensating to and dominated by AMOC induced Atlantic heat transport anomalies into the Arctic, hence a stronger AMOC and associated enhanced Atlantic hea t transport into the Arctic ocean leads to both reduced summer Arctic SIE and reduced poleward atmosphere heat transport into the Arctic. Most of the anomalous heat transported into the Arctic region by the Atlantic Ocean is released into the atmosphere, t hen transported southward out of the Arctic region by the anomalous atmosphere heat transport. Previous studies attribute the observed changes in the atmosphere circulation pattern and eddy heat transport in recent decades to the observed Arctic sea ice de cline. However, i f the recent observed Arctic sea ice decline since 1979 is also accompanied by strengthened AMOC and enhanced Atlantic Ocean heat transport into the Arctic Ocean, then changes in the atmosphere circulation pattern and eddy heat transport m ight have been dominated by the response to enhanced poleward Atlantic Ocean heat transport, not dominated by Arctic sea ice decline


NEW PERMAFROST FEATURE –.
DEEP CRATER IN CENTRAL YAMAL.
(WEST SIBERIA, RUSSIA) AS A RESPONSE.
TO LOCAL CLIMATE FLUCTUATIONS.

POSITION 69 OR SO of the pdf.
http://www.rgo.ru/sites/default/files/gi214_sverka.pdf


 It is established that permafrost prevents
the migration of methane from deep-seated
hydrocarbon collectors into the upper
permafrost and to the surface [Skorobogatov
et al, 1998; Rivkina et al, 2006]. Concentration
of methane in frozen Quaternary deposits
in the Arctic depends on the age, origin
and lithology of the permafrost. The gas
and gas-hydrate accumulations are localized
in the organic-rich horizons [Rivkina and
Gilichinsky, 1996; Rivkina et al., 2006].
The authors’ main hypothesis for the crater’s
formation involves the decay of relict gashydrate
inclusions, the release of gas out of
initially frozen deposits enclosing cryopegs
and tabular ground ice. This assumption
is based on the known cryolithology and
69 ENVIRONMENT
geochemistry of permafrost in the region,
with most of the studies performed in
the Bovanenkovo gas field investigations
[Streletskaya and Leibman, 2003]. The
Bovanenkovo studies revealed substantial
gas concentrations [Chuvilin, 2007; Yakushev,
2009], which are blocked by the permafrost
[Rivkina et al., 2006; Gilichinsky et al., 1997].
The possibility of the release of the gas
from the collectors near the surface is
shown by methane and hydrogen sulfide
effusion under the Barents and Kara seas
from 70 to 130 m beneath the sea floor
[Rokos, 2009]. Boreholes at Bovanenkovo gas
field [Chuvilin, 2007] revealed various gas
manifestations, such as emission out of the
borehole and high content in the samples,
in the depth interval 20 to 130 m. Most of
the gas was contained in ice-bearing clays
[Yakushev, 2009]. These clays also enclosed
tabular ground ice, cryopegs and some voids
filled with low-density ice. The maximum gas
emission was 14,000 m3/day [Bondarev et
al., 2008]. F. Are (1998) also suggests that gas
accumulates in voids within the permafrost.
Studies of gas bubbles in tabular ground
ice of the Kara sea region have shown
concentrations of methane exceeding that
of the atmosphere by an order of magnitude
[Lein et al., 2003; Leibman et al., 2003;
Streletskaya et al., 2014; Vanshtein et al.,
2003]. Analysis of δC13(CH4) in the upper
layers of permafrost in Bovanenkovo area
returns results around – 70 ‰, indicating
a biochemical origin of this gas in organic
matter in the permafrost. [Bondarev et al.,
2008]. The isotopic composition is within the
same range as in tabular ground ice bubbles
[Lein et al., 2003; Vanshtein et al., 2003;
Cardyn et al., 2007; Streletskaya et al., 2014].
Methane concentration in modern marine
sediments may exceed 1 ml/l in the Arctic
seas, [Mironyuk and Otto, 2014] while even
more than 0.1 ml/l is considered a high
concentration [Hovland et al., 2002]. The
methane concentration measured in the
frozen deposits of coastal exposures on the
Yamal can reach 1.7 ml/kg and in tabular
ground ice even more, as much as 2.2 ml/kg
[Streletskaya et al., 2014].
The release of this gas could be triggered
by changes in ground temperature.
Ground temperature changes result from
fluctuations in both air temperature and
snow accumulation. Warmer air can trigger
the rapid changes on the surface, thaw
ground ice bodies and create thermal
denudation landforms (thermocirques)
and thermokarst lakes. Probably, the new
features found in 2014 result from the same
rise of air temperature, but presenting a new
mechanism of formation: gas release in the
permafrost.
Thus the origin of the Yamal crater
hypothesized in this paper is based on the
analysis of (a) existing features resulting
from gas-release processes in the Kara sea
region as analogues of the observed onshore
landform, (b) climate fluctuations that
could have caused changes in thermal state
of permafrost, and (c) comparison to other
landforms connected to tabular ground
ice, the salinity of the deposits, and the
concentration of organic matter.
STUDY AREA
The central part of the Yamal Peninsula is
limited by the Yuribei River in the south
and the Nadui-Yakha River in the north,
including areas of active gas extraction and
transportation. The region is in the zone of
continuous permafrost at least 300 m thick,
with high tabular ground ice content. In
the 2000s, noTable fluctuations of various
climatic parameters have been observed
(Table 1).
The summer of 2012 and the preceding
winter of 2011–2012 were the warmest
since 2006 (Table 1). Summer precipitation
in 2012 was close to the maximum level for
this period, though precipitation during the
preceding winter was at a medium level.
The crater is located in the Tundra bioclimatic
zone, a subzone of typical tundra, about
70 ENVIRONMENT
17 km west of the Mordy-Yakha River and
about 11 km south of Halev-To Lake (69°58’N
and 68°22’E). Rolling hills with altitude up to
52 m have gentle slopes descending to small
ravines and lakes. The slopes are densely
vegetated by willow shrubs up to 1.5 m high.
Cryogenic landslides have disturbed the lake
shores (Fig. 1). The crater is located on a small
hill about 34 m above sea level.
The crater area is within the zone of
continuous permafrost. The average
ground temperature may be as low as –6
°С, and the active layer is up to 1 m deep.
The geological section is represented by
silty-clayey deposits, rich in ice and organic
matter, bearing several layers of tabular
ground ice several meters thick (Ananieva,
1997, Fig. 2).
Table 1. Main climatic controls of the thermal state of permafrost according
to weather station Marre-Sale records (http://rp5.ru/Bovanenkovsky

The date of
the crater’s formation is estimated to have
been in the late fall of 2013; (5) The high
concentration of methane in the hole, which
decreases in the vicinity of the hole and is
negligible far from the hole, indicates the role
of methane in the formation of the crater;

luni, 23 martie 2015

A RATHER ODD GROUP OF OLD NEWS - WHAT ABOUT THE PALEO DRAINAGE SYSTEM BEFORE MEN ROAMS THE OLDUVAI GORGE ...BY GEORGE ...

 Does not seem to have slowed down any.  Click to animate.
»
Lets not forget the facts, see what I read in the newspaper today:

* jakobshavn canal.PNG (886.7 kB, 526x700 - viewed 172 times.)
Here it is:

* Landsat 2015-02-21-vs-sep28-2014.jpg (147.22 kB, 690x752 - viewed 18 times.)
Believe it or not! Massive calving seen at the southern branch of Jakobshavn Isbræ
together with this animation created using images from the Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager:
Jakobshavn-feb12-feb19-2015-2
We’ve just grabbed this Sentinel-1A synthetic aperture radar image from February 15th 2015 via Polarview, which appears to suggest that the calving took place before 20:38 UTC on that date:
S1A_Jakobshavn_20150215T203828
Here’s a Sentinel-1A image via “nukefix” at the Arctic Sea Ice Forum, which confirms that the calving took place on or before February 16th:
subset_0_of_S1A_IW_GRDH_1SSH_20150216T095944_20150216T100009_004647_005BB8_B43C_Calib_EC_Sigma0_HH_db
This is a before/after animation from “A-Team” on the Arctic Sea Ice Forum, using 15m resolution Landsat images:
Jakobshavn-anim
Finally, for the moment at least, Espen Olsen provides an illustration of the retreat of the calving face of Jakobshavn Isbræ since 1851:
Jakobshavn-calving1851-2014
This most recent event does not bring the calving face further east than the position in summer 2014. However the sun’s rays are only just returning to that part of the planet, and the next one may well do so.
[Edit - 24/02/2015]
We’ve phoned DMI and NSIDC as well, but Jason Box who is a Professor at the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland has been the first to respond with an opinion about how unusual this event is:
It’s an interesting finding. In the attached prepared by Karina Hansen you will see a light yellow polygon illustrating the end of melt season 2014 ice. Jakobshavn front position retreated from the Feb 2014 (pink line) and Feb 2015 (green line) positions. The Feb 2014 and Feb 2015 positions are roughly the same with 2014 Feb being further retreated than Feb 2015:
Jaki_2015
A cautious response: even if this calving were abnormal, we will likely see an advance in the next weeks that will fill the void. Why?
A) This glacier flows fast, and
B) Now with less flow resistance there will likely be an acceleration making the void filling happen even faster.
Here are annual end of melt season area changes measured by PROMICE.org. These are being updated. I will ask Karina Hansen today to update for 2014 and 2015. We could have that result in a few hours.

luni, 9 martie 2015

Loose ICE (University of Rhode Island) "Cracks in the Cryosphere: How Changes in Sea Ice Can Upset the Ocean Carbon Cycle (Universite Libre de ICE IV "The Cryosphere Between the Cracks AND THE CRACKPOTS: Does It Matter TO THE MARCHING MORONS GOING UP A DIME BIGGEST YEAR IN NASDAQ IN YEARS THE XXI CENTURY FOX IS JUST FINE AND GOING TO GO FINER OR THINNER SOMETHING LIKE THIS OR LIKE THAT TIT FOR TAT

Arctic sea ice extent continues to track well below average, but it is still unclear whether March will see an increase in ice, or establish a record low maximum. Regionally, Arctic ice extent is especially low in the Sea of Okhotsk and the Bering Sea. In the Antarctic, sea ice shrank to the fourth highest minimum in the satellite record.

Overview of conditions

Figure 1. Arctic sea ice extent for February 2015
Figure 1. Arctic sea ice extent for February 2015 was 14.41 million square kilometers (5.56 million square miles). The magenta line shows the 1981 to 2010 median extent for that month. The black cross indicates the geographic North Pole. Sea Ice Index data.About the data

Credit: National Snow and Ice Data Center
High-resolution image
Arctic sea ice extent in February averaged 14.41 million square kilometers (5.56 million square miles). This is the third lowest February ice extent in the satellite record. It is 940,000 square kilometers (362,900 square miles) below the 1981 to 2010 long-term average of 15.35 million square kilometers (5.93 million square miles). It is also 50,000 square kilometers (19,300 square miles) above the record low for the month observed in 2005.
With the Arctic Ocean completely ice covered, the remaining areas of potential new ice growth are limited to the margins of the pack in the northern Pacific and northern Atlantic. Sea ice extent is below average across the entire sea ice margin, most prominently along the Pacific sectors. A small region of above-average ice extent is located near Newfoundland and the Canadian Maritime Provinces.
The Arctic maximum is expected to occur in the next two or three weeks. Previous years have seen a surge in Arctic ice extent during March (e.g., in 2012, 2014). However, if the current pattern of below-average extent continues, Arctic sea ice extent may set a new lowest winter

joi, 19 februarie 2015

DO TEMPO E DO ESPAÇO PASSO A PASSO ...NO ESPAÇO DE UM PASSO PASSO A BOLA À TOLA DE UM TOLO NO PAÇO COM CACHECOL OU MESMO COM OUTRO LAÇO ...ATÉ César METIA CunhaS E TINHA Dias O Sócrates é que já não vai a tempo......TUDO VAI A TEMPO SE A ALMA NÃO É PEQUENA ........O CONCEITO DE ESPAÇO-TEMPO PERMITE AFIRMAR QUE SOCRATES VAI SEMPRE A TEMPO ...HÁ UMA FUSÃO ÍNTIMA ENTRE ESPAÇO E TEMPO NO ESPAÇO TEMPO CORRESPONDENTE À GAY PARIS OU À CU RUPÇÃO DA JUVENTUS DE ATHENAS SOCRATES NAVEGA NO ESPAÇO RELATIVO E NO TEMPO RELATIVO ...É TUDO CÁ DUMA RELATIVIDADE .OR THE RELATIVE TIME AND RELATIVE SPACE IN THE CONTINUUM OF SOCRATIC CU RUPÇÃO DA JUVENTUS DE ATHENAS EMERGINDO DESTA REALIDADE FACEBOOKIANA UM NOVO ABSOLUTO ESPÁCIO-TEMPORAL A NOÇÃO DE INTERVALO ENTRE DOIS ACONTECIMENTOS ...O ACTO CORRUPTOR E O PERDÃO ATÉ 30 DIAS COMO PRAZO DE VALIDADE DOS PERDÕES DA CRISTANDADE....NA RÁDIO OUVE-SE DESCREVER ESTE INTERVALO TEMPORAL DE 30 DIAS COMO SE SE TRATASSE DE UMA QUARTA DIMENSÃO NILTONIANA MAS NADA PHODIA IPODEPODE SER MAIS FALSO COMO SE A RELATIVIDADE FIZESSE DESAPARECER TODA A DISTÂNCIA ENTRE O SPACE E O TIME DO SOCRÁTICO CU RUPTOR .. MAS NA REALIDADE OU NA RELATIVIDADE DO FACEBOOK O TEMPO TEM UM PAPEL OU MESMO UM RÁDIO...COMPLETAMENTE DISTINTO DO ESPAÇO RADIOFÓNICO OU MESMO DO ESPAÇO AFÓNICO DO FACEBOOK..... O ESPAÇO TEMPO NÃO TEM QUATRO DIMENSÕES TEM QUATRO VARIÁVEIS TODAS ELAS CORRUPTÍVEIS O RELATIVISTA FACEBOOKIANO SABE QUE PODE PERFEITAMENTE CORROMPER AS TRÊS DIMENSÕES E AFINFAR NA 4ªFALSA DIMENSÃO ESSA VARIÁVEL QUE É O TEMPO ....NESTE CASO VARIA SÓ 30 DIAS ...SÃO MANIAS .-O RELATIVISTA CHAMA A ESSE DISPARATE QUE OS LEIGOS PERCEPCIONAM COMO 30 DIAS CURVATURA DO CONTÍNUO NO ESPAÇO TEMPO SE BEM QUE CONTÍNUO FIQUE MELHOR EM LATIM ....TEMOS ASSIS OU ASSAD NO INTERVALO DE 30 DIAS ENTRE ACONTECIMENTOS DE DAR E LEVAR NO VIEGAS NÃO SEJAIS PIEGAS UMA FUNÇÃO MATEMÁTICA E LEGAL ANÁLOGA À DA CURVATURA A 3 DIMENSÕES DO ROTUNDO BUJÃO ALEMÃO QUE PERDEU QUASE TODAS AS GUERRAS OU SEJA A CURVATURA DE UMA SUPERFÍCIE IRREAL COMO O FACEBOOK...ORA CURVATURA DOS 30 DIAS É UM CONCEITO OU UMA CON SEITA OU UMA NOÇÃO CONCRETA E PODE SER APLICADA NO NILTON NOS BOYS DE SOCRATES E MESMO NO CONTÍNUO TEMPORAL OU NOUTRO CONTÍNUO ....UM DOMÍNIO ASSAZ OU ASSAD SINGULAR POIS NENHUMA TEORIA MESMO NILTONIANA PODE APAGAR CERTAS CARACTERÍSTICAS DO TEMPO ESPECÍFICAS DO DITO CUJO ..POR UM LADO O INTERVALO DE 30 DIAS ENTRE ACONTECIMENTOS DE DIFERENTES GRAUS DE PROBABILIDADE CORROMPER OU CU ROMPER E SER PERDOADO POR OUTRO LADO A PERSISTÊNCIA DOS OBJECTOS CORROMPIDOS QUE INTRODUZEM NESTE SISTEMA ANAL PENAL PENIS-ANAL UMA DISSEMETRIA OU DISSEMELHANÇA IMPRESSIONANTE EM TERMOS NILTONIANUS.

JÁ AS VARIÁVEIS DO ESPAÇO PODEM

VARIAR INDIFERENTEMENTE 

ENQUANTO O TEMPO ESCORRE OU CORRE

OU VAI A PASSO NUM SENTIDO QUE NOS 

É PERCEPCIONADO COMO ÚNICO 

ESTA IRREVERSIBILIDADE DO TEMPO

E O CARÁCTER IRREVOGÁVEL DAS 

DECISÕES DE PORTAS VON PAULUS 

NA EVOLUÇÃO DOS SISTEMAS FÍSICOS

ENCONTRAM A SUA EXPRESSÃO NO 2º

PRINCÍPIO DA TERMODINÂMICA ...

luni, 12 ianuarie 2015

SE A SOMBRA QUE NOS COBRE TIVESSE VISÃO MICROSCÓPICA PERDERIA A ÁRVORE E A FLORESTA TÃO FUNESTA E O VALOR ARTÍSTICO QUASE MÍSTICO DO LIVRO SEMI-VIVO SEMI-ESQUIVO NÃO PASSARIA NESSE CRIVO A TEORIA DA RELATIVIDADE NA VERDADE PERMITE COMPREENDER É O SEU GRANDE PODER MUITOS FENÓMENOS DA FÍSICA ESTELAR AINDA POR ESTREAR ENTRE ELES O MAIS FUNDAMENTAL O TAL QUE EXPLICA A PERDA DE ENERGIA DAS ESTRELAS MESMO AS MAIS BELAS APAGAM-SE COMO VELAS....E SEM LUVAS DE PELICA OU MAÇÃ EXPLICA A GRAVITAÇÃ UNIVERSAL POIS FICAVA MAL ESCREVER MAÇÃO PRA RIMAR COM GRAVITAÇÃO JÁ BEM TE FICA RIMAR JESUS COM O BENFICA EM CRUZ....E SE ESTA RIMA ASININA ASSASSINA PRETENDE EXPLICAR O AZAR DE JESUS NA CRUZ JÁ A TEORIA FINAL PRETENDE MESMO A ESMO CLARIFICAR SE CALHAR DAS GALÁXIAS A FUGA NO TEMPO CONTRATEMPO QUE ENRUGA O ESPAÇO PASSO A PASSO

JÁ A TEORIA DA RELATIVIDADE TEM POR BASE A SEXUALIDADE ......


.É UMA CRÍTICA LÓGICA DAS MEDIÇÕES HUMANAS O TANAS ........


DO CONTÍNUO DU TEMPO E DO ESPAÇO CUM BARAÇO ...............

O SEU DOMÍNIO É O MAIS VASTO QUE QUALQUER TEORIA ..

.JÁ É MANIA OU DIRIA MESMO MAIS É TEORIA Y MEGALOMANIA. ....

ATÉ DÁ AZIA NÃO É UM CAPÍTULO DA FÍSICA Ó COUSA TÍSICA ......

IMPÕEM-SE AS SUAS LEIS A TUDO QUANTO EXISTE, É TRISTE ....

SEU TRASTE, POIS A RELATIVIDADE INICIALMENTE Ó DEMENTE   ...

FOI CONCEBIDA SEM PECADO PARA EXPLICAR AQUI AO LADO ........FENOMENOLOGIAS À NOSSA ESCALA ...COME E CALA ...............

MAS OBVIAMENTE ADMITE E PERMITE ....................

.COMPREENDER O INFINITAMENTE GRANDE ,,,,,..........

QUE VOSSO DEUS EM TUDO MANDE ........................................

.E O INFINITAMENTE PEQUENO .......................

.SEJA NUCLEAR OU OUTRO VENENO

................................O QUE É BASTANTE SURPREENDENTE 

...................POIS ASSIM DE REPENTE ...................................................
AS NOÇÕES CONCRETAS ....................
SÃO VÁLIDAS PARA A ESCALA ...........
..............................EM QUE FORAM ESTABELECIDAS .............
.......SEJA EM VARIÁVEIS DISCRETAS .............................
.........SEJA NO CHÃO NO QUARTO OU NA SALA.......
QUE AS CONCRETAS A QUALQUER ESCALA SÃO FODIDAS    .............
.E CESSAM DE TER SIGNIFICÂNCIA A ESCALA DIFERENTE ......
.DE RESTO COMO ACONTECE COM TUDO E TODA A GENTE  .........
MORMENTE  GENTE COM TUSA OU IMPOTENTE....

sâmbătă, 10 ianuarie 2015

O MOVIMENTO DOS ELECTRÕES IN STRICTLY DEFINED ORBITS E A ABSORÇÃO E EMISSÃO OF DEFINITE PORTIONS OF ENERGY ALL THESES OU THESE OU TESEU CUM TESÃO PROPRIETIES OU PROPRIEDADES DU SOCRATES SUNT INERENTES AO MICROMUNDO NUM HÁ OBSERVAÇÕES SIMILARES NO MUNDO OF LARGE BODIES (OLHA PRÓ LADO QUALQUER LADO...DESDE QUE SEJA À ESQUERDA OU À DIREITA EUCLIDIANA ...TENS DOIS EXEMPLARES DOS LARGE BODIES) A QUE CHAMAMOS ,,,CHAMAMOS QUEM? AH ISSO DEPENDE QUEM QUEIRA VIR OBVIAMENTE...O MACROMUNDO...OU SEGUNDO AS CARTAS DE SOCRATES ...THE MACROWORLD ...PHYSICS OF THE MICROWORLD OU FÍSICA DO MICROMUNDO PARA QUEM TENHA FEITO INGLÊS TÉCNICO NUMA UNIVERSIDADE DE MERDE COMO O SOCRATES THE H ATOM CONSIST OF A POSITIVELY CHARGED NUCLEUS (PROTON Ó POLTRON,,,OU POLTRÃO) UND ONE ELECTRON ROTATING ABOUT IT THE ELECTRON HAS A CHARGE EQUAL IN VALUE (MAS OPOSTA EM SIGNAL A REVISTA DO GOEBBELS AO POLTRÃO QUE ÉS TU TU DESMOND) COMO UM TODO O ÁTOMO DE H É NEUTRO ELECTRICALY JÁ EM MASSA O POLTRÃO IS 1836 ELECTRON MASSES OU SEJA TEM MAIS MASSA APESAR DE TER PERDIDO UNS TROIKOS NO BES ....e físico nuclear maluco por óvnis ou microfísico tarado por óvaginis é o ká mais Fred rico Firmo firme de Sou zaza gabor ó carlos Cruz..... tunelamento em Sistemas de muitos Corpos Ricardo Marina nelli Interações Eletrofracas com o sexo forte Sid ney matogrosso ( dizem né) dos Santos de casa não fazem milagres probabilísticos Avancini Modelos Relativísticos em Física de Há drones? Even when the ulcers are benign; thou shalt fear. ...Over the empty plains toward Mantua he slid along at ease free and alone. He explored the horrors of Roman society He understood perfectly and without effort the quantum theory ...Física Nuclear e de Hádrons EMail se quiser ser abductado por estes aliens chamavam-te um figo se bem que passado d'edade...os nu kleos são, na realidade, sistemas compostos, redirecionou o interesse dos físicos nucleares para a investigação dos graus de liberdade de quarks e dos manganões e com isto e aquilo,a Física Nuclear e a Física das Partículas Elementares interligaram-se, dando origem à Física de Há drones ou ha ladrões ou há grandões? É importante observar se se conseguir e nenhum observador careca observa o mesmo que outro careca ou skin , k ou que na área de Física de Há drones, os mesmos modelos relativísticos que são capazes de descrever a matéria formada numa colisão de íõe dos pesados podem ser utilizados na descrição da metéria estelar, uma vez que os parâmetros livres da teoria sejam convenientemente ajustados.....é como um fato...um fato de facto e não um facto de fato tá? não tá atão guenta guenta ó guelfo UH MORE? O DIÂMETRO DO ÁTOMO NÃO PODE SER DEFINIDO ...WHY DOCTOR WHO? WELL SKIN AMICUS DE AMICUS SOCRATICUS QUE DÃO O CU PELA ALMA OU POR UM EMPRÉSTIMOZINHO A PAGAR NAS FESTAS DE BUNGA-BUNGA DO BERLUSCONI...BECAUSE THE ATOM HAS NO CLEARLY DEFINED BOUNDARY....THE SIZE OF THE NUCLER PORTION OF THE H ATOM IS 100 THOUSAND TIMES SMALLER CU ÁTOMO DE H....1,3 FERMIS AH QUERIAS TER UM AMIGO DAQUELES QUE O SOKRAS TEM....AGENTE JÁ DESCONFIAVA QUE ERAS DESSES...BENFIQUISTAS E BONS PAIS DE FAMIGLIA TÊM SEMPRE AMIGOS DESSES NOS COSTADOS OU ESCREVE-SE ENCOSTADOS? TO SHIFT 1 ELECTRÃO DORAVANTE CHAMADO e- da sua órbita interior para uma MAI DISTANTE QUE ÉVORA NEXEXITA DE EXITAR O GAJO E DUM AMOUNT OU DE UMA DEFINITE QUANTIDADE DE ENERGY (E CHAMA-SE A ISSO UM QUANTUM ....A QUANTO UM? BOM QUANDO O ELECTRÃO RETORNA À ÓRBITA ORIGINAL PAGA O MESMO DE VOLTA THE SAME AMOUNT OF ENERGY IN THE FORM OF A LIGHT QUANTUM ....LIGHT PORQUE NÃ T'ENGORDA ...JÁ AOS DO LADO...TODOS OS ESTADOS DO H QUE TENHAM 1 Nº QUÂNTICO PRINCIPAL QUE EXCEDA A UNIDADE SÃO CHAMADOS POR GAMAS GAY VARIOUS EXCITED STATES ....OR EXCITED STUDS DEPENDE DO BAR ONDE OS FÍSICOS NU CLEAR ANDAM ÓS TOMBOS ...

A DENSIDADE OF MATTER NO POLTRÃO

É FANTÁSTICA 

200 MILHÕES DE TONELADAS/CM CÚBICO 

A ELECTRON MOVING IN THE INNERMOST 

ORBIT IS CALED A K-ELECTRON A K?

A QUÊ MESMO ....THE ELECTRONIC 

SHELLS ARE GIVEN NUMBERS NON SÃO

PESSOAS OU PERSONAS BOM SKIN

NUMBER ONE K SHELL

SUNT PRINCIPALIS QUANTUM NUMBERS 

OF THE ATOM ...

O RAIO QUE O PARTA DE UM ÁTOMO

NO ESTADO EXCITADO OU ENTESOADO

É PROPORCIONAL AO QUADRADO DO Nº

QUÂNTICO ...PRINCIPAL

O RAIO DO ÁTOMO TÁS A VER 

BOLAS (OU HUEVOS)

N=3 RAIO =9 DE AN UNEXCITED ATOM

OU SEJA UM DE IDADE PROVECTA 


miercuri, 18 iunie 2014

ENFIM ATÉ COMEÇARMOS A MORRER AFOGADOS JÁ MORREMOS DE MORTE MATADA DURANTE A IV GUERRA ECONÓMICA GLOBAL 1914-2014 CEM ANOS DE GUERRAS ECONÓMICAS EM LARGA ESCALA

Antarctic ice melt has doubled to 159 GIGATONNES (that's 430,000 Empire State Buildings) a year since 2010, satellite reveals

  • Esa's CryoSat-2 mission has provided new data on the Antarctic ice sheet
  • It surveyed the region from 2010 to 2013 and found losses had doubled
  • In total the ice sheet is losing 159 gigatonnes (159 billion tonnes) each year
  • That is twice the rate of ice loss found in the last survey from 2005 to 2010
  • And just this loss alone will raise sea levels by half a millimetre a year
  • But sea levels will rise much more when other factors are considered

Three years of observations show that the Antarctic ice sheet is now losing 159 gigatonnes (159 billion tonnes) of ice each year - twice as much as when it was last surveyed in 2012.
A team of scientists from the UK Centre for Polar Observation and Modelling, led by researchers at the University of Leeds, have produced the first complete assessment of Antarctic ice sheet elevation change.
They used measurements collected by Esa's CryoSat-2 satellite mission, which carries an altimeter, an instrument to measure altitude, specially designed for this task.
A survey from 2010 to 2013 by Esa's CryoSat-2 satellite shows that the Antarctic Ice Sheet is now losing 159 Gigatonnes of ice each year, enough to raise global sea levels by 0.45 millimetres per year. Colour scale ranges in this image from -1 to +1 metres (3.3 feet) per year
A survey from 2010 to 2013 by Esa's CryoSat-2 satellite shows that the Antarctic Ice Sheet is now losing 159 Gigatonnes of ice each year, enough to raise global sea levels by 0.45 millimetres per year. Colour scale ranges in this image from -1 to +1 metres (3.3 feet) per year

In sharp contrast to previous altimeter missions, CryoSat-2 surveys virtually the entire Antarctic continent, reaching to within 135 miles (215 kilometres) of the South Pole.
This has  enabled a fivefold increase in the sampling of coastal regions where today's ice losses are concentrated.

WHAT 159 GIGATONNES IS EQUAL TO

79.5 trillion laptops
2.27 trillion people
14.5 billion Hubble Space Telescopes
381 million International Space Stations
3.06 million Titanics
430,000 Empire State Buildings
397 times the world’s human population
32 teaspoons of neutron star
22% of the mass of carbon stored in Earth’s atmosphere
Overall, the pattern of imbalance continues to be dominated by glaciers thinning in the Amundsen Sea sector of West Antarctica.
However, thanks to the improved capabilities of CryoSat-2, problem areas such as the rugged terrain of the Antarctic Peninsula can now also be surveyed.
 

On average West Antarctica lost 134 gigatonnes of ice, East Antarctica three gigatonnes, and the Antarctic Peninsula 23 gigatonnes in each year between 2010 and 2013 - a total loss of 159 gigatonnes each year.
The polar ice sheets are a major contributor to global sea level rise and, when combined, the Antarctic losses detected by CryoSat-2 are enough to raise global sea levels by 0.45 millimetres each year alone.
The largest loss of ice is occurring at the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, with the Pine Island Glacier shown here. West Antarctica is losing 139 gigatonnes of the total 159 gigatonnes every year, which is double the rate of ice loss from 2005 to 2010
The largest loss of ice is occurring at the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, with the Pine Island Glacier shown here. West Antarctica is losing 139 gigatonnes of the total 159 gigatonnes every year, which is double the rate of ice loss from 2005 to 2010

In West Antarctica, ice thinning has been detected in areas that were poorly surveyed by past satellite altimeter missions.
These newly-mapped areas contribute additional losses that bring altimeter observations closer to estimates based on other approaches.
But the average rate of ice thinning in West Antarctica has also increased, and this sector is now losing almost one third (31%) as much ice each year than it did during the five year period (2005 to 2010) prior to CryoSat-2's launch.
Lead author Dr Malcolm McMillan from the University of Leeds said: 'We find that ice losses continue to be most pronounced along the fast-flowing ice streams of the Amundsen Sea sector, with thinning rates of between 4 and 8 metres [13 to 26 feet] per year near to the grounding lines of the Pine Island, Thwaites and Smith Glaciers.'
This sector of Antarctica has long been identified as the most vulnerable to changes in climate and, according to recent assessments, its glaciers may have passed a point of irreversible retreat.
Launched in 2010, CryoSat carries a radar altimeter that can 'see' through clouds and in the dark, providing continuous measurements over areas like Antarctica that are prone to bad weather and long periods of darkness.
The radar can measure the surface height variation of ice in fine detail, allowing scientists to record changes in its volume with unprecedented accuracy.
ESA¿s Earth Explorer CryoSat-2 mission (artist¿s illustration shown) was launched on 8 April 2010 and is dedicated to precise monitoring of changes in the thickness of marine ice floating in the polar oceans and variations in the thickness of the vast ice sheets that blanket Greenland and Antarctica
ESA¿s Earth Explorer CryoSat-2 mission (artist¿s illustration shown) was launched on 8 April 2010 and is dedicated to precise monitoring of changes in the thickness of marine ice floating in the polar oceans and variations in the thickness of the vast ice sheets that blanket Greenland and Antarctica

Professor Andrew Shepherd, also of the University of Leeds, who led the study, added: 'Thanks to its novel instrument design and to its near-polar orbit, CryoSat allows us to survey coastal and high-latitude regions of Antarctica that were beyond the capability of past altimeter missions, and it seems that these regions are crucial for determining the overall imbalance.
'Although we are fortunate to now have, in CryoSat-2, a routine capability to monitor the polar ice sheets, the increased thinning we have detected in West Antarctica is a worrying development.
'It adds concrete evidence that dramatic changes are underway in this part of our planet, which has enough ice to raise global sea levels by more than a metre [3.3 feet].
'The challenge is to use this evidence to test and improve the predictive skill of climate models.'
And Professor David Vaughan of the British Antarctic Survey said: 'The increasing contribution of Antarctica to sea-level rise is a global issue, and we need to use every technique available to understand where and how much ice is being lost.
'Through some very clever technical improvements, McMillan and his colleagues have produced the best maps of Antarctic ice-loss we have ever had.
'Prediction of the rate of future global sea-level rise must begin with a thorough understanding of current changes in the ice sheets - this study puts us exactly where we need to be.'
And finally Dr Ian Joughin at the University of Washington, author of a recent study simulating future Antarctic ice sheet losses, concluded: 'This study does a nice job of revealing the strong thinning along the Amundsen Coast, which is consistent with theory and models indicating this region is in the early stages of collapse.