tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-7762351538927877855.post1353117233376154912..comments2016-03-31T09:43:36.509-07:00Comments on ALMA MICROPHYSICA: WHEN THE SOMATORY OF ALL COEFFICIENTS OF CONTRACTION TENDS TO INFINITY YOU HAVE A PONTUAL UNIVERSE -the expansion of the universe started to accelerate recently (meaning a few billion ...BUT IS ONLY A PONTUAL MEMENTO MORI OF ALL UNIVERSES THE SOMATORY OF ALL EXPANSION IS BIGGER THAN ALL THEPONTUAL CONTRACTIONS IN THE FORM OF BLACK HOLES AND OTHER ASS HOLES DA GAMMA RAY ..... Homogeneity requires the proportionality coefficient to be only a function of time. Banda in barbarhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/09573682791396956162noreply@blogger.comBlogger3125tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-7762351538927877855.post-40249933295250813752016-03-31T09:43:36.509-07:002016-03-31T09:43:36.509-07:00that it takes
about 300 Gigayears (GY) of comoving...that it takes<br />about 300 Gigayears (GY) of comoving expansion to<br />convey a point, or test particle, starting one lightyear from<br />the center of a void and ending at the interface<br />150,000,000 lightyears from the center of the void. How<br />long does it take to reach the halfway point at 75,000,000<br />lightyears? Remarkably, it takes 290 GY for expansion to<br />reach one half the radius of a full-size cosmic bubble.<br />This leaves only 10 GY in which to expand the balance of<br />the distance to the interface; and is achieved by a<br />relentless increase in both the speed and acceleration of<br />the outward space flow (caused by expansion). Obviously<br />comoving expansion takes a very long time, both in<br />relative and absolute terms. The prolonged slow<br />expansion and almost negligible space flow in the central<br />portion of a void, leads to an interesting possibility.<br />Part of the DSSU theory of galaxy formation is<br />described as follows: As space expands in three spatial<br />dimensions and flows radially outward from the cosmic<br />bubble’s central void, space accumulates matter by a<br />formation process in which primitive matter emerges<br />from the aether, from the fundamental fluctuators that<br />constitute aether. The primitive matter grows and evolves<br />—manifesting as conventional energy and mass particles.<br />The important point here is that matter accumulation<br />within the void depends primarily on time and<br />consequently on radial position.<br />Now if we divide the total expansion-flow time of<br />300 GY (Graph 3) into two equal time periods along the<br />full nominal radius: then 150 GY is spent along the first<br />million lightyears of length (actually considerably less<br />than one million lightyears, only 11,400 LY, using<br />equation (6-1a)); and 150 GY along the much longer 149<br />million lightyears, of the latter portion of the radius. In<br />descriptive terms, it is as if space sits leisurely at the core<br />of the void for 150 Gigayears and then spends another<br />150 Gigayears expanding completely across the void (to<br />the interface boundary). This is a disproportionate<br />consequence of the ‘miracle’ of compounding or<br />exponential growth!<br />Back to the galaxy formation process. A vital quantity<br />for determining the rate of galaxy formation is missing.<br />What is the rate of matter formation and accumulation per<br />unit of volume? Equivalently one may ask, how long does<br />it take for a galaxy to form from pure vacuum energy and<br />its derivatives? It could not possibly be a short time span<br />—otherwise the voids would not be voids and would be<br />filled with proto-galaxies and mature galaxies. It would<br />have to be as long as possible. A reasonable assumption is<br />that the time span of formation is not more than 150 GY.<br />By the time a region of matter and energy accumulation<br />reaches the interface it will have evolved into a full grown<br />elliptical. This result is predictable and observable (only<br />the evolution time is contentious but seems reasonable).<br />If we accept this conservative time frame for the<br />formation of galaxies in expanding and flowing space,<br />and we recognize that the same time span (about 150 GY)<br />and the same rate of space expansion occurs in the central<br />core (approx. one MLY radius) of the void, we can<br />reasonably surmise that galaxies also form, and even<br />mature, in this region. It is possible that galaxy formation<br />is great enough to sustain a small cluster of galaxies. The<br />result would be a void core-region where expansion<br />space-flow is actually radially inward. The geometric<br />center of each void may actually be a region of net spacecontraction.<br />Without knowing the rate of matter formation<br />per unit of volume, the size and degree of contraction<br />remains speculative.<br />Full grown galaxies arriving at the interface is an<br />observable fact; the existence of galaxies in the center of a<br />cosmic-bubble void is an interesting idea and actually has<br />been reported but not verified.Banda in barbarhttps://www.blogger.com/profile/09573682791396956162noreply@blogger.comtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-7762351538927877855.post-22019505527665508692016-03-31T09:42:05.857-07:002016-03-31T09:42:05.857-07:00A useful expansion parameter may be calculated by
...A useful expansion parameter may be calculated by<br />first selecting the length that light can travel in one of our<br />time intervals. For convenience, this would be a length of<br />1 million lightyears (the distance a light pulse travels in<br />the time of one million years).<br /> We know that this distance (sometimes called a<br />comoving coordinate distance) increases by a fractional<br />amount i every million years. The increase can be<br />expressed as,<br /> ∆ distance = 1MLY × i ,<br />then divide by our chosen time interval,<br /> ∆ distance / ∆t = (1MLY / 1MY) × i .<br />The left side is simple the definition of average speed,<br />and on the right side 1MLY ÷1MY is, by definition, the<br />speed of light c, and can be replaced by 300,000 km/s.<br />Thus,<br /> Speed of expansion = c × i .<br />Finally we divide both sides by the length of 1MLY<br />(alternately 1 mega-parsec favored by astronomers),<br />which is the coordinate length that references the<br />expansion:<br /> v /1MLY = (c i) /1MLY.<br />The left side defines the expansion parameter. The right<br />side is easily evaluated.<br /> Space expansion parameter = (c i) /1MLY (6-6)<br /> = 300,000 km/s × 0.00006226 /1MLY<br /> Space expansion parameter ≅ 18.7 km/s per MLY<br />We have, in effect, determined the value of the space<br />expansion parameter —known as Hubble’s ‘constant’ in<br />conventional cosmology— by using the cellular structure<br />of the Universe and the associated galaxy motions<br />induced by aether dynamics.<br />The Exponential Equations for Space Expansion<br />Equation (6-1) above provides a simple, intuitive,<br />approach to space expansion. The increment factor (1+ i)<br />is applied repeatedly to the growing coordinate length in<br />the same way that an interest factor is applied repeatedly<br />to a growing monetary investment. The formal method is<br />to use the expression for the relative rate of change of a<br />co-ordinate length r with respect to time:<br /><br />dr/dt ÷ r = v ⁄ r = k , (6-7)<br />where k is constant when space is expanding uniformly.<br />The expansion is described by the ratio of the rate of<br />change of a length divided by that length. Note that the<br />value of k depends not on the length units, but only on the<br />time units chosen. Constant k is simply our space<br />expansion parameter with its length units cancelled out.<br />Let us, then, replace k with the space expansion<br />parameter (which we symbolize as H) and write the<br />relative rate of change equation as,<br /><br />dr/dt ÷ r = v ⁄ r = H . (6-8)<br />Now if we choose our units so that v is in km/s and r is<br />in MLYs, then the expression could easily be mistaken for<br />the Hubble term used in conventional cosmology. The<br />identity confusion is but momentary; only until one<br />realizes that ‘their’ Hubble expansion is applied to the<br />entire visible universe, while our space expansion H is<br />applied only within the confines of cosmic cells —the<br />cosmic cells of a non-expanding universeBanda in barbarhttps://www.blogger.com/profile/09573682791396956162noreply@blogger.comtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-7762351538927877855.post-9214770850295003602016-03-31T09:40:42.441-07:002016-03-31T09:40:42.441-07:00Anomalies, however, are abundant. With a discrepan...Anomalies, however, are abundant. With a discrepancy<br />of 5200 km/s “Stephan’s Quintet, a cluster of galaxies<br />(NGC 7317-20), gives evidence that some redshifts may<br />not be directly related to distance. The galaxies are still<br />believed to lie at the same distance, which can be<br />estimated from various indicators.” 8<br /> Another group,<br />NGC 2903, similarly has an anomaly of 6000 km/s.Banda in barbarhttps://www.blogger.com/profile/09573682791396956162noreply@blogger.com